Ross, The Management of Conflict: The growth of organized dissent from the uncompromising policies of the dominant leadership is also helpful in interrupting intractable conflicts. For example, the survival of Jews as an ethnic group, even without a single territorial base, has derived from socialization within the community about Jewish religious and cultural qualities and from external anti-Semitism. Primary Identities: The primacy or importance of an identity is another quality that affects its contribution to the persistence of a conflict. One approach is acting to change the ideologies and belief systems that sustain the conflict. The result can be self-perpetuating destructive struggles. Adversarial Identities: Finally, a conflict s intractability depends upon the identities of the adversary. Confidence-building measures tend to reduce denigrating views of the other side and reduce the inclination to characterize oneself in terms of opposition to the other side. Reconciliatory actions are increasingly common in order to achieve peace. There is a risk, however, that the compensations and assurances will be seen as signs of weakness, and the goals raised higher.
The collapse of the Soviet Union undermined the appeal of the secular and universalistic communist ideology, while the rapid changes of the modern world created new sources of discontents. Woehrle, Social Conflicts and Collective Identities (New York: Many other factors are discussed in many other essays in this web site. This includes shared religious adherence -- indeed, members of many religious communities proselytize to win converts to their faith. Groups resorting to one of these methods may get assistance from particular allies or face external opposition for doing so. Interruptive Policies: Once a conflict has already become protracted and destructive, are particularly needed to stop further deterioration. Among these, they say, are recognition, security, and identity.  Human needs theorists and practitioners believe that the frustration of these needs underlies many social conflicts.
Not only application all essay ‘white privilege’ high school contest ritzy england town aims ‘increase awareness’ tell us yourself. Generally entails according some to the antagonistic sides in a conflict and treating the representatives with human regard, even when the parties themselves do not. Negotiating shared understandings about moves can help reduce such. The way each adversary resists oppression and injustice in turn affects that group s self-identity and conception of the other. Littlefield, 2000),.  Harold H. For example, during the Cold War, an important aspect of American identity for many people in the United States was to be anti-Communist. Inclusivity:
Certain qualities of identities contribute significantly to the intractability of conflicts, and whether those conflicts are constructive or destructive. Persistent Identities: Protracted conflicts are made possible by enduring identities, often based on ascribed characteristics. However, a group with an ethno-nationalist identity and even a high sense of superiority may avoid an intractable conflict with a group that has identities emphasizing other-worldly religious concerns. Three settings shape collective identities: (1) internal factors within each group, (2) relations with adversary groups, and (3) the social context of the groups External actors can be important agents in ensuring compliance to agreements, which helps build trust between former adversaries. Only a few strategies are briefly noted here. Preventive Policies: Official and nonofficial agencies may help alleviate deteriorating living conditions that otherwise might exacerbate ethnic antagonisms and ignite fights that become intractable. They are less evident in civic nationalism, which affirms citizenship in a country as obtainable by all who choose to live there.  Furthermore, it is indeed possible for people to be patriotic, celebrating their own people or country, without denigrating or dominating other peoples or countries. Victimhood: Another important characteristic of identities is the degree to which people hold identities that incorporate their sense that they have generally been of oppression and domination by others. James Baldwin created beautiful line in 1984, ten, father died. Fundamentalist interpretations of the world in Islam, Christianity, Judaism, and Hinduism are in part responses to the resulting unsatisfied needs for meaning, community, and hope. New identity essay.